Phoenix Flow ReactorTM Application Notes

The following application notes show the wide range of chemical reactions and synthetic methods which can be implemented in our Phoenix flow reactor systems.

Phoenix Flow Reactor

1.

A continuous flow process for the green and sustainable production of N-alkyl imidazoles

Ionic liquids have gained great interest during the last three decades due to their green and sustainable behavior along with their added versatility as solvents in inorganic and organic reactions as well. N-Alkylimidazole derivatives are key intermediates for the synthesis of quaternary ionic liquid salts.

2.

A high temperature green method for direct N-alkylation with the Phoenix Flow Reactor

N-alkylation reaction is frequently used in various industrial, pharmaceutical and agrochemical processes, such as the production of Piribedil; a drug used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

3.

Direct alkylation of N-heterocycle under heterogeneous catalytic conditions in flow

Flow reactors are applied to conduct high temperature and high pressure chemistry towards extending the accessible chemical space to access new applications.

4.

Ethanol oxidation with heterogeneous catalysis in flow: a batch to flow conversion

Acetic acid is considered to be an important chemical commodity as both a solvent and Bronsted acid. Being one of the first organic molecules that was synthesized in history (Kolbe, 1845), there are a wide range of procedures for its manufacturing. Despite this fact, industrial-scale production now requires more environmentally friendly solutions for its sustainable production.

Heterogeneous catalysis has been found to be a useful alternative method to the current Monsanto process industry currently utilizes. With the combination of ThalesNano’s Phoenix Flow Reactor™ and Gas Module™, a reactor system has been built, which is capable to control high temperature–high pressure triphasic gas-liquid-solid reactions providing a safe and efficient environment for organic chemists.

5.

Fast and continuous transfer hydrogenation of aromatic nitriles to amines

The reduction of nitriles is one of the most common routes to synthesize primary amines, which are key intermediates in fine-chemical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural industries. Both direct (employing H2 gas) and transfer hydrogenation can be used for this purpose. The latter is a rapidly growing field taking into account green chemistry and economic considerations, avoiding the handle of hazardous hydrogen gas. By considering the last restriction, smart systems with in situ H2 gas production could be also an alternative solution.

6.

Optimization of N-alkylation in the Phoenix Flow Reactor using 45 MHz picoSpin bench-top NMR for monitoring

Flow chemistry is a widely accepted technique in the synthesis field and makes optimization fast and convenient. Benchtop NMR instruments allow chemists to measure 1H NMR spectra directly in the fume hood and monitor pseudo-real-time behavior of reaction chemistries.

7.

Phoenix Flow Reactor: Your solution to dead-end chemistry

Today’s chemistry reaction space is severely restricted by conventional laboratory equipment; do not have too many options when it comes to temperature and pressure accessibility. ThalesNano’s Phoenix Flow Reactor is designed to overcome this problem by offering chemists a versatile solution that can extend their chemistry capability significantly. The continuous-flow reactor can fit either a fix bed reactor for heterogeneous catalyst/reagent chemistry or a coil for homogeneous reactions up to 450 °C and 100 bar safely.

8.

Polymerization and grafting onto particle surfaces via continuous flow chemistry

Polymer grafted inorganic particles are attractive building blocks for numerous chemical and material applications. Surface initiated controlled radical polymerization (SI-RAFT) is one of the most feasible methods to fabricate these materials. However, conventional in-batch approaches still suffer from several disadvantages, such as time-consuming purification processes, inefficient grafting, and possible gelation problems. A facile method was demonstrated to synthesize homopolymers and block copolymer grafted inorganic particles using continuous flow chemistry in an environmentally friendly aqueous media using the Phoenix Flow Reactor.

9.

Reaction optimization and real-time analysis using ThalesNano’s platform and Mettler Toledo’s FlowIR™ spectrometer

In this application note we report on the optimization of hydrogenation, oxidation and ring-closing reactions and their real time analysis. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were performed in ThalesNano’s H-Cube® Pro, Gas Module™ and Phoenix Flow Reactor™ systems, while these reactions were monitored by Mettler Toledo’s FlowIR™ device.

10.

Safe and efficient Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions under continuous flow

Modern flow chemistry methods offer new chemical space for drug discovery programs: novel compounds can be synthesized in dedicated high temperature/high pressure (high T/p) reactors, while reaction times can be shortened dramatically.

11.

Versatile chemistry examples performed on the Phoenix high temperature, high-pressure flow reactor

The ability to explore wider chemistry space to discover new chemistry and compounds is becoming increasingly more critical as increased R&D costs go hand in hand with lower new registered molecules year on year. To achieve this, we, as chemists, must seek to expand the capabilities that we have in the lab in terms of temperature and pressure, but in a reliable and safe way. The Phoenix Flow Reactor is a technology designed specifically for this process. With the ability to perform homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry up to 450 °C and 200 bar, the Phoenix Flow Reactor is versatile enough to create new or improve on existing chemistry. In this application note, we demonstrate the flexibility of the Phoenix Flow Reactor by presenting various applications such as N-substitution, thermal Boc-removal, scalable Claisen-rearrangement, and synthesis of soluble polyphosphate anions.