Multistep azo-dye formation in the IceCube continuous flow reactor

Diazotization and azo-coupling reactions are chemical processes that lead to industrially important azo-dyes and other intermediary molecules. The formed intermediate diazonium salts are unstable above 5°C and might explode when they are left to dry. Both diazotization and azo-coupling reactions are always carried out with high precautions in the lab on any scale. The need for a safe and high capacity process for diazotization and azo-coupling made us develop these reactions in a flow manner.