High Temperature Reactions
In chemistry, temperature is the most important physical parameter with which a chemist can achieve the activation energy needed to perform a reaction. It is also a well controllable parameter thus a reaction can be handle in a precise range. The Arrhenius equation says that with a 10 °C rise in temperature the reaction rates double. Many reactions in chemistry need high temperature to reach the desired conversion or yield, but with traditional batch equipment chemists can only reach 250-280°C in safe a environment. With this parameter barrier numerous reactions are unavailable or take long time to fulfill.
High Temperature Instruments by ThalesNano
One of the most important properties of flow systems is that they can work with small spaces under pressure. In this environment temperature can be safely elevated higher than in batch flasks. Because the instruments can build high pressure the solvent can be heated high above its boiling point while it still stays in liquid phase. These circumstances enable reactions which are impossible to perform in batch.
|High temperature reaction with the Phoenix™ Flow Reactor|
ThalesNano’s new Phoenix Flow Reactor can work up to 450°C in liquid phase using SS loops (4, 8 or 16mL) or catalyst cartridge system (ThalesNano’s CatCarts®, MidiCarts or 125 mm and 250 mm SS catalyst cartridges). With a Phoenix Flow Reactor – H-Cube Pro™ online system the chemist can work up to 100bar safely. Reactions such as N-alkylation with alcohols on Raney Nickel catalyst work over 250°C in minutes with good selectivity and yield.
ThalesNano’s Vacuum Flash Pyrolysis reactor can reach even higher temperatures and pressure. With this instrument the reachable temperature is up to 1000°C in vapor phase using high vacuum at the collecting side. Preheating the staring material, it evaporates in the inner volume of the vesse, and in vacuum the reaction occurs in milliseconds. Numerous heterocycle synthesizes via ketene intermediate were performed this way. The VFP reactor can work in liquid phase too, with a 400 mm SS catalyst filled cartridge. In this case a 400 bar HPLC pump contains the pressure and the flow rate.